The defending champions (Jamaica) conceded an early goal in the 10th minute but equalized 7 minutes later through substitute Rosario Harriot.
However, Curacao scored their second goal in the 81st minute to guide Curacao to their first Caribbean Cup title.
The Reggae Boyz were searching for their seventh Caribbean Cup title.
Earlier, French Guiana won the third place playoff by defeating hosts Martinique 2-1.
The Reggae Boyz will now look forward to playing their first game in the CONCACAF Gold Cup on July 9 which will be against Curacao and then play Mexico on July 13 and El Salvador on July 16 in their last group match.